History of Bedroom Furniture Sets

 

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEDROOMS IN HISTORICAL PROCESS

SUMMARY

The act of lying, which is one of the important requirements that ensures the continuation of life, is the use of furniture called bed.

is done with . Creating a separate space for sleeping with the effect of various factors, especially privacy

needed . The development of both the bedroom furniture and the bedroom are interconnected issues. Bed furniture throughout history

and bedroom has gone through many phases. Bedrooms are not just a place for sleeping. History

Throughout its history, it has been a sign of wealth and status, a place for socialization, a private space, and a place that develops with technology. do not lie down

action and the places where this action takes place depend on cultures, lifestyles, customs, art movements and periods, political

and It differs according to socio -cultural events, architectural planning, development of materials and construction technology.

In this study, the concept of the bedroom will be examined especially in terms of residences and its historical development will be examined in terms of space and furniture.

by examining the change in Turkish housing , especially with the westernization movement, by specifying the futuristic

approaches will be discussed.

Keywords: Bed, Bedroom, History of Furniture, Interior Architecture, Modernization.

DEVELOPMENT OF BEDROOMS IN HISTORICAL PROCESS

ABSTRACT

the act of bedding is carried out by the use of furniture called a bed , which is one of the important requirements that ensure

the continuation of life. it was necessary to create a separate space for the action of lying under the influence of various factors ,

especially privacy . the development of both  bedroom  furniture  and bedroom is interconnected . throughout  history , the

development of bedroom furniture and bedroom has gone through a wide variety of phases . bedrooms are not just a place used

for only sleeping . throughout history , it has been a sign of wealth and status , a place for socialization , an intimate area , and a

developing place with tech . the bedding action and the places where this action takes place differ according to to cultures ,

lifestyle , customs and traditions , art movements and period , political and socio-cultural events , architectural planning , and the

development of materials and construction tech . Of this study , the concept of the bedroom will be examined especially

through residence , and its historical development will be analyzed in terms of space and furniture , and its future approaches

will be discussed , especially with its westernization movement in Turkey .

Keywords : Bed , Bedroom , Furniture History , Interior Architecture , Modernization .

1. INTRODUCTION

Undoubtedly, bedrooms have a special importance in terms of interior architectural designs.

Today, user requirements, user satisfaction, main function in bedroom designs

and issues such as sub-function relationships and ergonomics are effective. Bedrooms are not only in residences;

hotels , hospitals, student dormitories, retirement homes and for human life.

are important places. In the Turkish Language Institution Contemporary Turkish Dictionary, the bedroom is “used for sleeping”.

room” ( URL -1). Sleeping is the physical and mental aspect of the human body.

an act of relaxation . The physical environment required to perform this action

provided . For this purpose, sleeping places in today's buildings are kept separate from other places.

In general, in a bedroom, one or two beds, nightstand, wardrobe, dresser, dressing table,

are reinforcement elements such as mirrors . The development of this space, which we perceive as simple, is essentially nothing.

been easy either. When we look at the history, it is seen that this process took quite a long time and that the bedrooms

It is possible to see that they have gone through a very difficult process in becoming what they are today . This process is social

– interacted with cultural and economic changes. The act of lying down and this action

The places where it takes place are influenced by cultures, lifestyles, customs, art movements and periods, political

and vary according to socio -cultural events. In this study, the concept of bedroom

especially on the houses and its historical development will be examined in terms of space and furniture,

 

In Turkish housing, especially with the westernization movement, the change was also indicated, and futuristic approaches were taken.

will be mentioned .

Bedrooms are in a constant state of change, just like people. For example, nomadic people use animal hides.

while sleeping on it ; When they settled down, they needed a separate place for the act of lying down.

Today, bedrooms emphasize privacy. But the bed we have today

the formation of the chambers ? Take a brief look at these topics

required .

2. TO THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BED FURNITURE AND BEDROOM

A LOOK

In order to examine the history of the bedroom, it is necessary to examine the bed furniture first.

Archaeologists have estimated that the oldest deposit found in South Africa ( Sibudu District) is about 77,000 today.

years ago. This bed is made of reeds. The leaves that make up this bed

aromatic scent and is known to repel insects from the bedding environment. Johannesburg

Archaeologist Lyn from the University of the Witwatersrand Located about 10 m below ground by Wadley

remains give us information about the first deposit (URL-2). The bed is about 30 of an area of 2 m2.

cm. It was formed by digging in depth and covering it with reeds and leaves. Wadley 's study

states: “These leaves are designed to protect young children from biting insects, especially children.

was important to prevent death . The leaves may have also driven away the flies and the flies

is another cause of illness.” ( Wadley , 2011: 6). Such deposits are present in primitive Africa.

regions are still used. off the ground in rural areas of African countries such as Ethiopia

high tree branches and reeds (Picture-1).

 

Figure 1. Primitive Bed Used in Rural Areas in Ethiopia (URL-3).

In China, archaeologists believed that the idea of heating stones and sitting and lying on them in the Neolithic Period .

they discovered that it might happen . These beds, which are called “ Huoqiang ”, are from today.

about 7,200 years ago. This is to start a fire on a hard surface and

a system based on the practice of cleaning the ashes before going to bed. Stone platform over time

A system was developed to light a fire and provide ventilation under the roof and it was called “ kang ”

has been named . This system is still used in some parts of China today. This

technology is not just for sleeping; also for cooking, heating and other activities

used . The Kang number determines the size of the room. because a  kang is almost a

half the room . A similar sleeping pattern in Japan and Korea

 

  

Kang and Its Usage in China Today (URl-6, URL-7).

traditional Japanese dwelling , they slept on mats laid on straw mats called " tatami ".

In the traditional Turkish dwelling, one sleeps on the mattresses that are laid on the ground.

Names such as “musandıra” were kept in cabinets (Günay, 1999: 171). “Growing on a pillow”

proverb reflects the importance of the bed for married couples and family unity in terms of Turkish life culture..

 

Picture 4. Traditional Japanese House and Floor Lying Mechanism in Turkish House (URL-8; Günay, 1999: 171).

2.1. Bed and Bedroom in Ancient Civilizations

As a furniture similar to today's, the bed is seen literally in the Ancient Egyptian Period.

construction and " angareb stretching" made with very fine workmanship.

a bed made of leather straps named after him, ordinary people were made of reeds and straw.

on the low mattresses that were created . The beds of seniors had no head end.

 

 

only the toe . Nobles, wealthy and common people like wood, ivory as pillows.

of materials . Similar lanyards still exist in Africa today .

used . It is also known that nobles and rich people sleep using sun loungers ( Demirarslan ,

2011: 163 )

Figure 5. Bed and Room in Ancient Egypt; Neck Collar Usage in Africa ( URL-9; URL-10).

ancient Greece , people slept in single beds, as in Egypt, and spouses slept in separate rooms.

they were staying . Beds in the homes of the rich and noble are the form of today's beds.

similar . Boyla (2012) describes bed furniture in Ancient Greek Civilization as follows:

: _

“The Greek nobility was light, reminiscent of the Egyptian bed, but higher and shorter.

They used sun loungers . They have a small elevation to rest a pillow at the head of them.

would be . The feet are either carved and capped, modeled on architecture, or on a lathe.

plain forms. A table is placed under the height of the chaise longue.

was set . If necessary, this table would be removed and food would be served on it.”

In ancient Greece, the main functions of the bedroom were sleep and sexuality. Weaving works in the bedroom

was being done . The women's bedrooms were usually located at the back of the house, sometimes on the second floor.

This indicates a seclusion and privacy not found in Roman homes. Etruscans for the first time

They made a double bed to allow the spouses to sleep together. Importance of marriage and family

as “Marriage Bed” ( Demirarslan , 2011: 251). Some

Etruscan beds , the elevation on the head and feet moves to the other side as the person on it gets tired.

equal to be able to lean . These features are also seen in Roman beds (Boyla,2012) .

 

 

 

Figure 6. Bed in Ancient Greece, “Marriage Bed” in Etruscans (URL-11; URL-12).

bedrooms, called " cubiculum " in ancient Rome , were used only for sleeping.

(Picture- 7). These rooms were very small and furnished quite simply, even in the best homes. your rooms

walls were decorated with murals. There is not much in the room other than the bed, footstool and standing lamps.

goods were not available . Some of these  Associated with the Cubiculum , possibly of servants

entrance sections that allowed entry and exit . Often for the bed, even in modest homes

an indentation was made. Some Roman bedrooms were likely to be used only for noon siesta

and these bedrooms were naturally located in the cooler part of the peristyle and the cubicula diurna ”

was called. Spouses slept in different rooms ( Demirarslan , 2011: 295-296; Riggsby ,

1997: 36-56 ) .

 

 

2.2. Bed and Bedroom in the Middle Ages

There was no concept of privacy during the Middle Ages. In a community, people live and live

centered in and around a large space . Everything they do, such as food, work, trade, and sleep.

action was taking place in this place. When night comes , people lie on the floor and

They slept near fireplaces . The nobles and the rich slept in the upstairs rooms. Bedroom

business , commerce and marriage. salons today

privileged were invited to stay and sleep. waking up at night in the Middle Ages

first, a little snack was thought to be essential for healthy living. For this purpose the cover

Food cabinets with perforated decorations were located in the rooms. Also next to the bed

There were also low types that were used as tables (Boyla, 2012).

While Roman beds were used until the 15th century; high class wood

cots . Beds were relatively simple in the Early Middle Ages and were generally

wood . Mattresses are filled with straw and similar materials and placed in a wooden frame or

 

 

a “bearing box”. The poor still often lay on heaps of straw and leaves on the ground.

was sleeping . In the 12th century, beds became much more ornate and served as symbols of wealth.

has done . Bed frames are adorned with carvings, inlays and paintings, while bedding and even mattresses

processed . Over time, a pillar was placed on the four sides of the bed and a hill was placed on it and curtains were placed around it.

with closed. As “ Beddachin Bed” or “ Canopy Bed” or in English “ Canopy ” as " Bed "

protect from the cold and provide privacy while sleeping ,

it has become a symbol of wealth (Picture-8). According to a very old tradition,

There were even those who insisted on being carried on . Like their throne, their bed was a symbol of their power. Your house

chief , designed "against the sun", stood in the reception room, while it was laid out at night.

a bed was a common phenomenon (Boyla, 2012).

Boyla (2012) defined baldachin beds in his work as follows:

headboard of the typical bed of the period is carved, patterned or fabric made with paint.

covered . The canopy was either suspended from the ceiling or on pillars rising from its four corners.

was seated . An oil lamp was hung from the middle of this top cover. So the curtains

it was closed, it could be warm and bright, like a small room. canon

The curtains hanging from the frame and surrounding the bed were tied with a rope arrangement and pear in the corners.

be collected. Some beds were sitting on a platform. Platform both

bed and could also contain clamshell chests.

made of fabric compatible with the curtains , will also cover the platform around it.

It was big .”

The dimensions of the beds in the Middle Ages were different from the beds of today. There were beds shorter than human height.

Fluffy pillows were placed at the head of these beds and sitting in a lying position. Some

beds was quite wide. Beds will allow multiple people to sleep in a single bed

width . Sometimes guests shared a bed with their hosts.

Platform beds were also featured in rooms in the Middle Ages. If there is no possibility to make rooms in simpler houses

beds are made as sleeping boxes/sleeping cabins and at the same time sheltered from the cold.

sleep is offered. English “ alcove ”, German “ Butze ”, French “ grand ”

cousche These elements , called “ enchassile ”, were again very popular in the 19th century..

Beds in the Middle Ages were extremely expensive in terms of craft and design. Wealthy nobles made their beds

with them, and when people died, they determined whom they would leave as an inheritance in their wills.

Even servants competed with each other to manage important bedrooms. from the bedrooms

chief maid in charge of “ Lord ” in England He was assigned the name “ Chamberlain ”. this task today

still held in many royal households in Europe.

 

Figure 8. Platform Bed, Florence, Italy- 1500 and Baldachin and Platform Bed Burg Eltz Castle,

Germany (URL-14).

Picture 9. Bed Boxes/ Sleeping Cabins English “ Alcove ”, German “ Butze ”, French “Grand Cousche ”

Enchassile ” (URL-15).

2.3. Bed and Bedroom in the 16th and 17th Centuries

In the 16th century, with the architectural spaces reshaped with the Renaissance, the bedrooms

has made much progress. During this time , bedrooms are sparse.

furnished . Except for a bed and a chest, not many kinds of furniture could be seen. However, the bedroom

serve as a public stage for critical aspects of life such as birth , wedding, work, and socializing

has done . However, in England VIII. Kings like Henry gave importance to the bedroom. king's success

It is important to furnish the rooms of kings and queens, as success in the bedroom depends on it.

given . Even state affairs and courts were seen in the king's room. middle class in the 16th century

also extremely valuable to them. The concept of privacy  baldachin beds with curtains.

 

Clos of Leonardo Da Vinci Bedroom in Castle Lucé (URL-16).

The 16th century bed was of more similar proportions to today, actually to show the magnificence of the wearer.

exaggeratedly wide and long ones for However, the medieval steep

rest in position can be used for the same reasons, but also for digestive reasons.

has been preserved . After the banquets, the nobles and knights retreat to their rooms and rest

it was traditional . Hence, resting in an upright position for digestion after a hearty meal

was needed . It is a very interesting phenomenon that is seen more frequently in the usage and traditions of the society in this period .

detail is the baldachin beds as in the Middle Ages . This furniture is a roof structure with curtains and curtains.

It is nothing but a bed with four corner posts supporting it. Second, translucent fabrics and

tulle or all kinds of jewels and ornaments. Curtains provide both privacy and

flies and insects (Picture-11).

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

  

Picture 11. King VIII. Henry's Bedroom, Hevercastle (URL-17).

The poet Andrew Motion covers the beds of this period in his poem “ The British Galleries ” (Motion, 2012).

He stated in his verses:

“Get into the big bed

This bed never toppled

across a thousand feet

swelled air

A leaf shakes the sleepers like a storm

That's why it's here.”

The same bed is mentioned in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night ( Shakespear , 1601):

“- Dock, Sir Andrew. Not being in bed after midnight means getting up early.”

to here is the bed in Motion 's poem. Built in 1460, this bed is made of oak and

elaborately decorated with carvings. The dimensions of the bed are 3.27 m (W) x 3.27 m (L) x 2.286 m (H)

is specified . As can be understood from here; The bed is not only comfortable but also quite large in size.

big bed. When the German Prince Ludwig of Anhalt - Köthen arrived in England in 1596, this bed was

He was impressed by its size and stated that he could sleep comfortably on four people ( Furnes , 1991: 204).

 

Picture 12. Mentioned in the Works of Shakespeare and Motion and Today in the Victoria And Albert Museum

Found Bed (URL-18)

 

In the 17th century, bedrooms and bedrooms continued to be prominent for the middle class and ruling class.

In larger homes , bedrooms were usually the room containing a bed with separate cupboards for husband and wife.

However, these cabinets are not like today's dressing rooms. These closets are for praying and lonely

was made to stay . In this period, privacy was not considered important in the bedrooms . From outside

come to the bedroom or while someone is sleeping in the bedroom, others can easily come to the room.

could enter . Even the act of dressing did not require privacy. The host of servants or

to see the king , he had to move from one room to another, because at that time they

There were no corridors with circulation spaces connecting each other . Privacy beds with curtains

was being resolved . At the same time , the bed and bedroom are considered symbols of power and wealth.

was seeing . The Queen Anne even had a bed made for her death. 17th century bed surrounding

decorative style: Baldachin remained only for ornamental purposes, now it was used to create a space.

it did not insulate the bed (Picture-13).

Baroque Art features that were common in interior architecture as well as in other art fields in the 17th century

especially in palaces. Baroque-style beds in palaces and mansions are handcrafted

embroidered covers in such a way that it could never be seen. Especially the bedside table applique work

with shiny fabrics made. These beds did not have foot boards. Bed,

It was placed in the middle of the most important wall in the room so that the bedside was abutting. room for visitors

Matching stools were lined up on the sides . The canopy, on the other hand, usually extends to half the length of the bed or to the ceiling.

hung or hidden by covering the carriers at the head with a fabric stretched to the wall. The cover of the canopy and

the curtains on the sides were made in harmony with the cover of the bed. Their ends are edge strips, fringes and

tassels (Boyla, 2012).

 

Picture 13. Queen Anne's Bed of England, Hampton Court and King of France XIV on the right. Louis' Bed

Room (URL-19).

In the 17th century, the bedroom was a place to receive guests, as in the past. Mistake

were allowed to sit on the bed . Thus, the decorations of the beds also

importance . French palaces were famous for their bedrooms (Picture 13). XIV. in Louis' palace

all made by master upholsterers. However, 30 of them

has survived to the present day ( Kratz , 1986:104).

 

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

2.4. Bed and Bedroom in the 18th and 19th Century

Georgian Period in England in the 18th century and in other European countries in the parallel process

interior spaces has begun to be provided by corridors. So to go to a room

bedrooms have become private spaces as there is no need to go through another room.

Servants had their own sleeping quarters. Maids in bedrooms when needed

There was a bell to call . Bed decorations declined in the 18th century. Baldachin shrank and most

time took the shape of a dome. at the end of the century  With the effect of neoclassicism , the bed becomes simpler.

has arrived . Made of dark wood, decorated with gilding or brass applications.

appear in 1730 , is located in the bedrooms.

They were sofas and chaise longues that were modeled after the Ottoman cedar . in the seats

Like these, they were covered with soft upholstery with wooden frames. Cuffs turned outward

a species was “ Sultan” (Boyla, 2012). In France, the Rococo-style bed was no longer part of the living room;

place was the bedroom. The beds, which were lighter compared to the old times, now took on the quality of a bedstead.

(Boyla, 2012). Bed with Eastern impressions, named as “Turkish Room” by Marie Antoinette

room is one of the rare examples left undisturbed from the French Revolution. Queen Marie Antoinette

The famous bedroom, built in 1787 , is located in the Castle of Fontainebleau . At first an ordinary

Gold leaf and floral decorations on the top of the bed of this room, which looks like a palace room decor .

there are . A child representing silence on the top of the bed, the symbol of sleep poppy flowers

surrounded by . The portrait of a man with a turban on his head in the room , the moon, the star, horse tails, “Turkish

wall decorations bearing traces of the Ottoman Empire, such as the corn cob

and the crescent motifs on the furniture are the leading elements of decoration. a mechanism

The mirror moving on it is another important element of the room. Queen, the window of the room overlooking the garden

it slides the mirror that it has put in front of it into the wall by means of a rope, mechanical system,

so that he could benefit from daylight whenever he wanted to read and write. A similar mechanism

with the help of the curtain that moves. “The sign of sovereignty is not the throne,

bed ” word spread among the people. This is the politics of the Queen's flamboyant life and the country.

proof of his leadership . The bed of Napoleon's wife after the French Revolution of 1789

passed on to Joséphine de Beauharnais ( Bicknell , 2016: 191) (Picture-14).

 

Picture 14. Marie Antoinette 's Bedroom Called the “Turkish Room” with Traces of Ottoman

Wallpaper (URL-20).

19th century, each space of the houses in Europe served a different function.

Bedrooms in Victorian houses were designed for sleeping. If there is no separate room for spouses

male or the beds were separated. Baby cots are also parents

bedroom . The cook and servants slept in the kitchen in the places prepared for them.

More advanced medieval bed boxes/sleeping cabins in the kitchens of some large residences

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it provided sleeping places for the servants (Picture-15). The furniture in the room is a good carpet, in the middle of the room

a table, a wardrobe, a dressing table, chairs, a small bookcase, a sink and potty,

a " cheffonier " or "dresser", a small sofa or chaise longue in larger bedrooms

there was . Most of this furniture is from old items brought into the bedrooms from the downstairs rooms.

was formed (Picture-17). Because these items were worn out or outdated. Especially the carpets, from the living room

the master bedroom, the maid's room, until it was worn out. Hence the bed

It was a rare event to have separate furniture and furniture made for their rooms . Only from the middle of the 19th century

Afterwards, good carpets and furniture began to be purchased , especially for bedrooms (URL-21). Now

were no curtains on the beds . Mahogany is often used in the construction of beds with headboards and footboards .

tree was used . Clothes hangers were not used in bedrooms until the 19th century. dresses

The use of wardrobes in the rooms started while they were stored in the chests .

 

Picture 15. Bed Boxes/ Sleeping Cabins for Servants in 19th Century Houses.

The 19th century is the period when iron material was widely used with the Art Nouveau movement. iron

The bedsteads were both simple and inexpensive to make. It also promoted the cleanliness and hygiene of the beds .

In the 19th century, although baldachin was still in vogue, iron beds were preferred by most people.

was being done . These bedsteads looked more hygienic than wooden ones, and the spiral springs made an unexpected

comfort.

 

Picture 16. Newspaper Advertisement of a Company Selling Iron Bedsteads in the 19th Century* (URL-22).

*When the advertisement is examined, it is seen that the width of the bed is 90-100-115-125-140 cm.

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

 

Picture 17. Iron Bedstead and Bathroom Equipment in a 19th Century Bedroom (URL-23, URL-24).

When the bedrooms in the 19th century are reviewed, there is a bedroom that is both artistic and

It has a different importance in terms of interior architecture. Made in 1889 by the famous painter Vincent Van Gogh

“ The Bedroom in Arles ” is a bedroom. A single bed, a desk in the room

and two chairs and oil paintings hanging on the wall. Dresses hanging on hangers on the wall,

face , a water bowl and a mirror are other simple items in the room. Open to room

two doors , this room creates a connection in the transition to other spaces, privacy

not available .

 . “ The Bedroom in Arles ”, Van Gogh, 1889.

The peculiarity of this painting is that the concept of creating a bedroom for that period was taken seriously by the public.

started . For this purpose, it is necessary to mention the story of the making of the painting . Van Gogh

Gauguin , his painter friend , whom he thought to work with and whom he admired. Invites him to Arles. in Paris

Theo Van Gogh, who manages a gallery and sells the works of both his brother and Gauguin ,

to fulfill the request . Gauguin , Van on condition of continued economic aid to Theo

agrees to stay with Gogh . Van Gogh built the Yellow House whenever he thought his friend would be comfortable.

by making the arrangement  Prepares for Gauguin . It was during this period that he was waiting for his friend with excitement .

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

reflected in the pictures . He paints many paintings that adorn the walls of the house and Gauguin's room. These are Van

Gogh's work to show his artistic talent and will mark the beginning of his rivalry with Gauguin .

are pictures . One of these pictures is the picture mentioned above. Van Gogh on Gauguin's arrival

the following letter to his brother Theo regarding this painting, which he made while he was waiting, and which depicts his bedroom .

wrote (Picture-19) (URL-25):

"Dear Theo , to at least give you an idea of how my work has progressed.

little sketch for you at last. I 'm pretty good today . my eyes are still

tired though, but a new painting idea came to my mind, I couldn't help sketching it. That's it.

This will be a number thirty canvas. This time I will only do my bedroom but here

everything by color; to make things more splendid by simplifying and generally

an impression of rest or sleep. In short, the brain of the one who looks at this painting,

or rather, his imagination should rest. The walls are pale violet . ground red

consists of tiles . The wooden parts of the bed and chairs are fresh butter yellow.

Bed linen and pillows are lime green. The bedspread is red. The window is green. dressing table

orange , sink blue. The doors are lilac. And that's it - this is the one with the shutters closed

There is nothing else in the room . The broad lines of the items are a rest that is also inviolable.

express the mood . A couple of paintings, a mirror, a towel and some clothes on the walls. Frame-

no white in the picture - it will be white. The cheesy I'm forced into

So I will avenge the rest period. I'll be working on it all day tomorrow

again ..."

Arles , Tuesday 16 October 1888. Theo to van Gogh

 

Picture 19. Van Gogh's Letter and Sketch of the Painting Included in his Letter (Anonymous, 2012: 20).

Van Gogh explains his aims in painting in this letter. The painting is a feeling that is completely filled with color.

reflection . The subject was the bedroom , the motif was rest... Van Gogh , silence, comfort and peace

revive . But all the furniture in the bedroom is arranged to create a strong perspective effect.

placed ( Gombrich , 2014: 548).

2.5. Bed and Bedroom from the 20th Century to the Present

In the Twentieth Century, the bedroom now has the character of a personal setting with eclectic furnishings. Most

time is ultra-technological and modern , which makes this room no longer just a resting place, but suddenly

It makes it a place with lots of activity . However, this development has not been easy.

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

For the high-income homeowner in Europe and America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

private bedrooms and separate bedrooms for children were being built. house service

Separate bedrooms or sleeping areas were built for the personnel doing their jobs . of bedrooms

especially in terms of color and texture. The bedroom is still reserved for the bathroom

many functions, there was a sink, a mirror and a nightstand 

 

n Early 1900s Bedroom .

In America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, city life was dire for the poor.

E.g; Rentals in New York were overcrowded and unsafe. 80,000 in the early 1900s

2.3 million people lived in the apartment (URL-27). Because too many people were sharing the same building.

Different families even shared a single bedroom .

 

Figure 21. Bedroom Conditions in a New York City Apartment, 1905.

Industrial Revolution in the 19th century , many technological developments were experienced in housing. These developments .

It continued at the beginning of the century. These include for armchairs, sofa and chair upholstery.

spiral metal springs, electricity and lighting. The 1920s, when women's rights came to the fore

In the early part of Europe and America, interest for luxury bedroom designs increased. bathroom functions

bedroom , the bedrooms became more beautiful and eye-catching .

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

 Bedroom of a Residence in New York, .

Second World War, started to be rebuilt; if in america

A housing shortage has emerged for soldiers returning from the war and getting married. Couples in America in the 1950s

There was an economic upturn that allowed them to live a luxurious life in their home, and home life was resumed.

has been constructed . The decoration of bedrooms for children has gained importance. bed for kids

has been accepted as a playground rather than a sleeping place . In the 1960s, the bed was given a new

The concept was brought to America via England. Terrance , a famous retailer  Conrad

Scandinavian-style beds and simpler and more functional beds brought to England by

started .

 

Picture 23. Scandinavian-influenced Bedroom Design in America, 1959.

modernism , the perception of the bedroom has changed again. Bedroom in Le Corbusier 's own home

It contained extraordinary features, contrary to the architectural style and understanding of life of the period. As soon as the door is opened

There was a very high bed in front of you . The height of the bed is relative to the window height

was set . Le Corbusier to be able to see the view from where he was lying while he was lying in bed with his wife .

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research 

 

such a design. The toilet was inside the bedroom and without a door. Le Corbusier 's comfort in the room

light and landscape. In fact, it is possible to talk about a bedroom in the full sense of the word.

is not . Sleeping, sitting, toilet, bathroom, working, kitchen actions all in one place

resolved 

 

Figure 24. The Function of Lying and Other Functions in Le Corbusier 's Residence are Solved Together .

As the sexual revolution shook the '60s and '70s in every field, interior design changed again. John Lennon and

his wife in bed makes the concept of bed and bedroom a taboo in the eyes of people.

to take off. Their protest by staying out of bed at a hotel in Amsterdam was an unforgettable one.

action . Bed and bedroom are now a means of action .

 

In the same years, water beds, wall-to-wall carpets and wallpapers became the main decoration in bedrooms.

became impassable (Picture- 26). Waterbed by Charles Prior in 1968  It was invented by Hall and

into production in the 70's . In 1987, waterbed sales accounted for 22% of all mattress sales in the United States.

. Comfort, fun, fantasy and pleasure bring a new understanding to bedrooms with this bed.

has brought .

 

 

Today, bedrooms are designed with advanced designs thanks to the developing technology since the 1980s.

shows . During the 80s the decoration became different and the rooms were filled with technology.

started . In the 90s, technology was used in the bedroom, such as television, video player, stereo sound system.

continued to stand out. The use of pine-type wood, which stood out in the bedrooms in the 90s, also

was a popular design trend. Floral patterns , window curtains and pinkish colors are also in the 90s.

popular design trends and bedroom designs were also influenced by these decoration features.

youth room came to the fore, bunk beds became popular furniture.

 

The 80's and 90's were also the years when the interest in multifunctional and modular furniture design was concentrated.

Sofa and sofa beds, resolved beds with storage element, movable beds,

designs such as box- spring bed systems have found a place in residences . Especially sofa-bed furniture

it allowed the living rooms to be used for sleeping as well

 

. Sofa with Bunk Bed and Bed. .

Today, bedrooms are equipped with flat-screen televisions, lamps with adjustable lighting levels, memory

foam mattresses and ergonomic beds, while dressing rooms are equipped with private bathrooms to the bedroom.

It has become a set of spaces. Bedrooms with dressing rooms and private bathrooms

have the property has been accepted as a status indicator and a sign of wealth. Panel

and with the development of modular furniture technology, bedrooms are cheaper and in sufficient quantity to meet the need.

have the equipment and even low and low-income families could have this furniture.

become easier.

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

Major earthquakes and other natural disasters provide another perspective on the concept of bed and bedroom.

has brought . In an earthquake, it protects the sleeper from the dangers and provides life if he is under the debris.

designs that serve as a rescue began to be created. Baldachin beds of the Middle Ages earthquake

immediately began to transform into steel -poster beds that protect the sleeping person from falling under the rubble .

In addition, heavy and high furniture such as a wardrobe should be placed on the sleeping person in case of earthquakes that may occur at night.

Fixing the furniture to the wall and floor in order to prevent it from tipping over and special furniture for this situation.

It has come to the fore to produce detailed solutions . In addition , the furnishings of the bedrooms

It has been put forward that it should be done in ways that will minimize the damage in case of overturning .

 

Figure 28. Earthquake Bed (URL-33).

How has the concept of bed and bedroom been defined throughout history according to humanity and technology reaching the modern age?

can be seen with examples. Bed furniture and bedding from the beginning of the 20th century to the present

development of furniture ; futuristic design, especially starting in the 1960s

approach . E.g; In the 20th Century, Joe Colombo Cabriolet Bed (Picture- 30),

Ideas and utopias of Archigram group members such as Capsule House, Cushion or Suitaloon

we see . These inventions are based on an increasingly complex, technological,

ever-changing and natural needs, eliminating everything that is convenience for his own good.

Removing reflects innovative designs that favor seeking the minimum necessary conditions instead.

future of the bed and bedroom in futuristic housing designs in works such as the Jetchildren cartoon.

how it would be was also foreseen (Picture- 29).

 

 

*George Jetson's Bedroom Has a Flat Screen TV That Descends From the Ceiling. George's Morning Exercises Himself

Instead of Doing It, She Is Seen To Do It In A Video By Power Of Attorney: “Oh, Boy, That Belly Is Melting

I am feeling."

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

 

Picture 30. Joe Colombo Cabriolet Bed , 1969 (URL-35).

Michael Webb and David Greene of the Archigram group combine the car and the residence

In House (1964-1966) designs, the building is larger or smaller depending on the number of users .

(Anonymous, 1966: 573) Webb and Greene are the bedrooms of these residences.

They expressed their opinions about it as follows ( Ozkus , 2006:77):

“Why is there a waste of space in residences? Bedrooms for living and dining

More space is taken up than the rooms . Bedrooms by day, living room by night

remains blank . People think that it is not healthy to have the same room in which they live and sleep,

but they are not aware of the changes we have introduced...

residential unit, simply moving the panels over preset templates

thereby creating areas suitable for its intended use. The beds will form a panel

It can be folded in any way or placed under a floor panel. area, outside

it can become impractical with panels piling up around it or in various ways.

be arranged to allow the formation of different rooms.”

“ Living 1990 ”, in the 1990s, such as sitting, lying, resting, working, etc.

life is envisaged in spaces where actions are resolved in a single room. Instantly in the design of this room

and disposable food and clothing, two maid robots, inflatable furniture, and a " hoverchair "

as "Picture-

31) ( Sadler , 2005: 145). Inflatable In Suit - Home design , it is a cover that can be worn as a dress.

the system into a shelter to sleep in when necessary is discussed ( Sadler , 2005: 185).

Masanori , one of the Memphis group designers  If the bed designed by Umeda is a boxing ring

has the appearance of a large number of people and allows many people to lie down and sit (Picture-32).

It is seen that; In futuristic approaches, the bedroom is a technology center, a product of social isolation.

or as a center for socialization.

 

 

 

With the advancement of technology , electrical, electronic and mechanical systems and smart home

development of technology , interesting bedroom ideas continue to be developed.

. _ When the act of sleeping in restricted spaces is over, the upper and lower seating

The designs that create a living room layout by revealing the furniture

among the simple ones . In another example, the person on the transparent screens at the end of the bed

body type and size according to the meeting you will attend.

Wearing and trying on. The bed measures the person's temperature and blood pressure. Weather forecast

information , also has an assistant working with the interactive hologram technique (Picture- 33).

  

 

A bed equipped with technologies that will enable us to sleep less and wake up more vigorously, according to futurists.

chambers will revolutionize the future. In the future people will wear smart pajamas, bed

blankets and bedding are equipped with sensors that measure brain-body data, particularly their response to pressure, light, and heat.

It is predicted that they will have a personalized sleep experience thanks to the beds .

3. DEVELOPMENT OF BED AND BEDROOM IN TURKISH HOUSING

As mentioned above, the main space of the traditional Turkish house is the room. The whole life of the family, daily

The vast majority of life actions are carried out in the room. The act of lying down takes place in the room.

performed in their beds . Sometimes the act of lying on sofas with seating elements

was carried out (Picture 4). After the act of lying down, quilts, pillows and mattresses

was also stored in cabinets called musandıra. One of the most important features of the Turkish house is rich.

The same characteristics of the houses and rooms for all segments of the society, regardless of the house or the poor house.

is to show . The difference is evident in the decorations . Even in palaces where sultans slept

Similar comfort conditions are observed even in spaces (Picture- 34). Sultans and sultans also

sleeping on their beds and were able to receive their daytime guests in this place.

When it comes to the 19th century, the Ottoman society, which started primarily in the upper class, and gradually

As a result of the Westernization movement that spread to the lowest strata of the society , Turkish housing life also changed.

Journal of Social and Humanities sciences Research (JSHSR)

 

 

change . First, in the late 18th century, what was once an unusual settlement

Pera District is the center of change and modernization symbol of Istanbul, which was reshaped in the 19th century.

has become. The European-style life, called "Alafranga", firstly found itself in this district.

started to be felt in the interior arrangements of the newly built houses.

Clearly, the beginning of the Westernization movement in the housing culture was first observed after the 1860s.

meal arrangement , sitting on chairs and sofas instead of sofas and cushions

start of the habit . This change in the seating and eating arrangement of furniture

means change . Other traces of westernization are in clothes and living in the house.

emerged in the arrangement of the spaces . In the family, the friendship of husband and wife with each other is the only

polygamy , child health and upbringing, family structure and

therefore, residential usage habits have begun to change ( Demirarslan , 2007: 45-47).

The harem, which is planned as a closed section in palaces and large mansions , is in Western style.

furniture and lifestyle entered and accepted at the latest. Western style living and furniture

use is first seen in the selamlık section, which is planned to be open to the outside world. That's why

of westernization. because

The latest accepted Western style furniture has been the bed.

Sultan II., where westernization movements began to be seen. Bedsteads in palaces even during the reign of Mahmud

was not available . Leyla Saz , in her memoirs, made the floor beds in Çırağan Palace in 1853-54.

indicated that it was used . Decorator Séchan for Sultan Abdülmecid at Dolmabahçe Palace

designed XIV. The Boulle style bed , which has the characteristics of the Louis period, is a very important one.

is change . Pattern studies of this bed It was published in the magazine L'Illustration and even in Europe there is a

noted that there is no similar Séchan's application of the same in other furniture, chandelier and

see that it is also used in the designs of items such as candlesticks . Bed outside cot furniture

rooms are wardrobes, nightstands and dressers (Picture- 35).

The use of these furniture led to the emergence of the concept of bedrooms in residences over time.

caused ; This situation has led to changes in housing and palace planning in terms of architecture and interior design.

has opened . These developments continued in the Early Republican Period ( Demirarslan , 2009: 209-

220).

   

 

4. CONCLUSION

Today, user requirements, user satisfaction, main function in bedroom designs

and issues such as sub-function relationships and ergonomics are effective. In the historical process, bed furniture and

the bedroom took a very long time and the bedrooms became what they are today.

they have gone through a very difficult process in their arrival. This process is socio -cultural, economic

and interacted with technological changes.

act of going to bed and the places where this act takes place are influenced by cultures, lifestyles, customs, art.

currents and periods, political and socio -cultural events, architectural planning, materials and construction

differ according to the development of technology .

first periods of history to the present, sometimes natural and physical conditions, sometimes lifestyle, sometimes

privacy , sometimes needs, sometimes effective art movements of the period, sometimes ergonomic and technological

Many factors such as the quests have affected the development of these spaces and the furniture in them. However,

The element of privacy is one of the most effective aspects. Bed furniture and bedroom

The period when it started to develop similar to today is the Middle Ages. Bedrooms just for sleeping

not for his action ; bathroom-toilet, wedding, birth, hospitality and even court

It is also used for actions .

In most periods , having bed furniture and having the bedroom in the residence is a status and

It was considered a sign of wealth . At the same time bed and bedroom as a means of action

emerged at the forefront of society . It is enough to be the subject of poems of poets and paintings of painters.

importance has been given. In Turks, having a Western-style bed and bedroom is associated with Westernization.

kept identical . The act of sleeping in the house is caused by the privacy feature of the Turkish-Islamic culture.

For these reasons, it was the last affected function. For this reason, Western bed furniture is suitable for palace and

It is the furniture that enters the interior of the houses last. Change of concept of bed and sleeping place

traditional Turkish residential and palace architectural planning and interior design.

The act of lying in time shifts from a single item to furniture, a room, and then a space.

turned into a whole . With the developing technology , it is a single platform that contains almost every action.

There is a trend towards the furniture complex. It is seen that; bedrooms are just like people

is in flux .